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Scientific Argument for the Existence of God

 

Laws of Thermodynamics

The laws of thermodynamics are fundamental laws in physics that define physical quantities such as temperature, energy, and entropy. The first law of thermodynamics states that the total energy of a system must be congruous with the law of conservation of energy; namely, energy may transform from one form to another, but it can neither be created, nor destroyed. If energy cannot be created: what, then, is the provenance of energy? From where did it originate? There are three principal possibilities one must consider.

  1. Genesis of the universe from nothing (ex nihilo)
  2. The universe’s existence has been interminable (always existed)
  3. An intelligent being created it

 

The first possibility is least likely. Generation of the universe ex nihilo would necessitate a creation of energy/matter, and consequently, a violation of the first law of thermodynamics. Science has demonstrated that the likelihood of an interminable universe is impossible. The accepted initiation point of the “Big Bang” invokes the need for a being greater than the laws of physics – hence, a creator. The first law of thermodynamics can only be usurped by a being that is not bound by the spatial, temporal, and scientific constraints of the universe.

The second law of thermodynamics – in essence – states that the entropy of a system will always increase with time, that is, the “disorder” of a system will invariably increase (disorganization, randomness, etc.). For example, a perfectly clean room will become dustier, and dirtier with time. The universe is trending toward thermodynamic equilibrium because the energy available for work is gradually decreasing. Since the universe is an isolated system, it cannot exchange energy or matter with anything else. Therefore, the entropy or disorder of the universe will increase, and eventually, the universe will cease to exist. Energy available for work will decrease to zero.

With respect to the origin of the universe, the question becomes: how did we make the transition from non-life to complex, intelligent life on Earth? That transition would require a significant decrease in entropy, that is, a progression from disorder to order. This would ostensibly violate the second law of thermodynamics, since the universe cannot move from disorder to order.

Thus, there must be an intelligent being outside the bounds of the second law of thermodynamics to induce the genesis of a highly ordered universe. We know that the universe is tending toward disorder, so if we move backward in time, the order of the universe gradually increases, but it can’t increase interminably. It must have a starting point. How did we begin with a highly ordered universe? Science demonstrates that the probability of creating a high entropy universe is quite easy, but the chance of creating a low entropy universe is about 1 in 10123.

One can conclude from both the first and second law of thermodynamics that the most likely provenance of the universe is an intelligent creator, since the violation of both laws necessitates the existence of an entity outside of the temporal, spatial, and scientific constraints of the universe.

 

 

Putative Fine-Tuning as Further Substantiation of Intelligence

The unique specificity of conditions present in our universe is such that infinitesimally small alterations in fundamental forces would elicit a total dissipation of life. Consider the following.

  1. There are multifarious elements necessary for life – the most important of which are carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen. The formation of carbon in stars occurs via a collation of helium and beryllium nuclei. The reaction is contingent upon resonance, whereby the ground state energy levels of the nuclei must be fine-tuned to +/- 1%. Fred Hoyle was the scientist who discovered this process (formation of carbon in stars), and he noted that the fine-tuning was a great challenge to his atheism, as it seemed as if a super-intellect tinkered with the physics.
  2. Strong nuclear force holding atoms together: as we know, atoms are fundamental building blocks of life, and so, the precise interactions of neutrons and protons are critical for building molecules, cells, and living things. If the mass of a neutron was one-seventh of a percent more than it is, stars would be incapable of burning hydrogen, and consequently, cease to exist. If the mass of a neutron was 0.085% less than it is, all of the protons would have converted into neutrons post-Big Bang, and we would not be here. If there were roughly equal numbers of protons and neutrons formed, no hydrogen would be created, making complex life unlikely.
  3. The precision of the ratio between the electromagnetic force to gravitational force. A slight increase in the ratio by 1 in 1040 would produce only small stars, while a decrease in the ratio by the same amount would produce only large stars. We need large stars for essential chemical elements, and small stars to permit planet, and life formation. The precision that we have is “akin to a marksman hitting the far side of the observable universe 20 billion light years away.”
  4. The ratio of expansion to contraction forces – if the universe expands too slowly, gravity causes it too collapse; conversely, if the universe expands too quickly, galaxies will not form. The precision of this variable is 1 in 1055.

 

In conclusion, the notion that the universe initiated without exogenous induction by an intelligent being is an extremely low probability proposition. How can the provenance of the universe be explicated without an intelligent being? The initiation of the universe violates both the first and second laws of thermodynamics (energy/matter creation out of nothing, and disorder to order), which necessitates a being that is independent of those constraints. Further, the exceptional fine-tuning of the universe – to the extent that diminutive alterations in certain forces would elicit death – strongly suggests that an intelligent being exists.

Finally, what is the probability of: an earth-like planet existing in the universe, replete with conditions necessary for life; at the right temperature; combination of variables to elicit the evolution of non-complex life into multicellular, complex beings; and, for that life to further evolve into sentient, intelligent, human life? The probability is infinitesimally low.

 

The wager that God exists is one that science indicates we should take.

 

God

 

 

 

 

 

 

References:

https://blog.emergingscholars.org/2014/05/nature-as-a-christian-apologetic/


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